Tuesday, May 26, 2020
Chastity Kolmorgan History 111 The World: Antiquity-1500 Dr. Christopher Levesque Primary Secondary Source Evaluation Assignment - April 19, 2015 NiccolÃ ² MachiavelliÃ¢â¬â¢s The Prince and Ian JohnstonÃ¢â¬â¢s Lecture on MachiavelliÃ¢â¬â¢s The Prince NiccolÃ ² Machiavelli, a Florentine, lived between the years of 1469-1527. In 1513, Machiavelli wrote The Prince and gifted it to the Medici family with the original title of About Principalities. He first dedicated the work to Giuliano deÃ¢â¬â¢ Medici and later to Lorenzo deÃ¢â¬â¢ Medici. It was a political critique that was later printed under the title of The Prince in 1532. The treatise was controversial due to MachiavelliÃ¢â¬â¢s lack of regard for the morality behind his advice. In his composition, heÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Politics played a significant role in his life. They not only provided him with the experience, but the character and will, with which he wrote. Evidence of his republican attitude are prevalent in his other works on principalities and republics (Strauss 182). In Ian JohnstonÃ¢â¬â¢s Lecture on MachiavelliÃ¢â¬â¢s The Prince, he asserts his belief that Machiavelli wrote his treatise with satirical intent. Ã¢â¬Å"...The book is, first and foremost, a satire, so that many of the things we find in it which are contradictory, morally absurd, and specious are there quite deliberately in order to ridicule two things-first, the Medici family itself and, second, the very notion of tyrannical rule embodied in the government of the Prince (hence, the satire has a firm moral purpose-to expose tyranny and promote republican government)Ã¢â¬ (Johnston Lecture on MachiavelliÃ¢â¬â¢s The Prince). Due to the immorality advocated for in MachiavelliÃ¢â¬â¢s writing, along with what is known of MachiavelliÃ¢â¬â¢s politics, individuals often succumb to one of two beliefs regarding The Prince. The first is that he wrote The Prince in mockery of the princely states, specifically the Medici family. It was meant as a sort of caricature of their rule. The Medici family had long interfered with the republic of Florence. Ã¢â¬Å"Cosimo, Piero, and Lorenzo, three successive generations ofShow MoreRelatedThe Prince by Niccolo Machiavelli2045 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagessignificant as NiccolÃ ² di Bernardo dei Machiavelli, was born into the nobility in the Republic of Florence on 3rd May 1469. He was educated in Latin and then studied at the University of Florence. This fuelled his interest in political theory and so the Medici. During his childhood, Lorenzo de Medici, Il Magnifico, had vast power and influence over the fortunes of Florence fortunes. In awe of the Ã¢â¬Ëmagnificence of the Medicean rulerÃ¢â¬â¢ Lorenzo, Machiavelli would later, dedicate The Prince to LorenzoÃ¢â¬â¢sRead MoreThe Origin Of Modern Political Thought1935 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesthis is false. The origin of modern political thought was, in fact, introduced to the world during the time of the renaissance. In the Italian city of Florence lived the political philosopher NiccolÃ ² Machiavelli, who is the man responsible for shaping t he view of modern political thought. NoccolÃ ² Machiavelli was born May 3, 1469 in the Tuscan town of Florence. Florence was a major town in the Tuscan areas during the 12th century. By the time the renaissance came around during the 13th century, FlorenceRead MoreMacbeth And The Prince By Niccolo Machiavelli1801 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesMacbeth and The Prince NiccolÃ ² Machiavelli describes the actions and qualities of a glorious prince in his novel The Prince. His assertion about a leader for a country can be used to evaluate Macbeth as a king in ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s play Macbeth. Macbeth took similar actions and had similar qualities of the ideal prince that Machiavelli characterizes. In light of reading Macbeth, the conclusion can be made that Machiavelli is wrong in the case of Macbeth because he is not a noble or memorable leaderRead MoreGame Of Fortune And The Role Of Virtu1793 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesmade. The philosopher Niccolo Machiavelli spoke of Ã¢â¬Å"virtuÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"fortunaÃ¢â¬ in book 2 in his scholarly piece Ã¢â¬Å"The DiscoursesÃ¢â¬ . With Ã¢â¬Å"virtuÃ¢â¬ being the knowledge or skill that a man possesses, and this skill can be learned from studying history. Man had the ability to actually hone virtu and perfect it. However, Ã¢â¬Å"fortunaÃ¢â¬ was more like mother nature or chance. However with fortuna being an unrelenting force man could manipulate fortuna for his own gain by using his virtu. Machiavelli argues that fortunaRead MoreThe Nature Of Armed Conflict2289 Words Ã |Ã 10 Pagessides need to be equally represented. War has been said to a natural part of human nature. We are prone to conflict with one another and cannot be easily avoided. According to Niccolo Machiavelli, Ã¢â¬Å"There is no avoiding war; it can only be postponed to the advantage of othersÃ¢â¬ (Niccolo Machiavelli, 1513, ch. 3). Machiavelli believed war to be unstoppable essentially, if conflict arises between two or more parties it can only be postponed to better mitigate any issues that immediate conflict wouldRead MoreMitigating Human Rights and Security Abuses1930 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagespermanent five members of the UNSC. The Syrian conflict highlights some of the major obstacles when it comes to policing human rights through bodies such as the United Nations. Niccolo MachiavelliÃ¢â¬â¢s take on realism can be applied here when he says that, Ã¢â¬Å"promises must be broken when there is an interest to do so.Ã¢â¬ Machiavelli is correct in the sense that states can withdraw their support from the UN when situations donÃ¢â¬â¢t suit them. The major historical culprits of this are the permanent five membersRead MoreGlobalization Of The United Nations2464 Words Ã |Ã 10 PagesGoals and the Sustainable Development Goals, actively analyzing the implications of limitations of power in global governance on the effectiveness of the United Nations Global Development ambitions. Following this I will offer conclusions both as a summary of my research, and reflections on the potential future of the United Nations Development Agenda. Chapter 1: Global Governance In this chapter I will look at the rise in the importance of global governance, and some of the reasons for itsRead MoreEssay about Commerce Case Study Report for David Jones Sexual Harassment3214 Words Ã |Ã 13 PagesPrinciples of Responsible Commerce: Group 5 October 2010 Assessment 3: Case Study Report Sexual Harassment in the Workplace Ã¢â¬â David Jones and Pricewaterhouse Coopers Kristy van Duin, Li Yutao, Pablo Arenas, Jace Burgess Executive Summary The following report looks at the increase of Sexual Harassment claims within Corporate Australia that have been lodged with the Australian Human Rights Commission over the last decade. David Jones Pty Ltd and Pricewaterhouse Cooper are two prevalent casesRead MoreMilitary and Corporate Strategy7776 Words Ã |Ã 32 Pagesattrition warfare, scorched earth action, blockade, guerilla campaign, deception and feint. Ingenuity and adeptness were limited only by imagination, accord, and technology. Strategists continually exploited ever-advancing technology. In 1520 NiccolÃ ² Machiavelli s Dell arte Della Guerra The Art of War dealt with the relationship between civil and military matters and the formation of a grand strategy. It was not until the 18th century that military strategy was subjected to serious study in EuropeRead MoreOrganizational Behaviour Analysis28615 Words Ã |Ã 115 PagesORGANISATIONAL ANALYSIS: Notes and essays for the workshop to be held on 15th - 16th Novemeber 2007 at The Marriot Hotel Slough Berkshire SL3 8PT Dr. Lesley Prince, C.Psychol., AFBPsS University of Birmingham November 2007 Ã © Dr. Lesley Prince 2007. Organisational Analysis: Notes and Essays Page i Page ii Please do not attempt to eat these notes. CONTENTS Introduction to the Workshop Topics And Themes The Nature and Scope of Organisation Theory Levels of Analysis The Metaphorical
Friday, May 15, 2020
Sample details Pages: 7 Words: 2139 Downloads: 3 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Finance Essay Type Analytical essay Did you like this example? 1.What are agency costs, and how are agency costs of financial distress different from agency benefits of leverage? Explain their impact on calculating the value of a firm with financial distress. Agency costs arise when conflicts of interest occur among stakeholders and must be paid out to an agent acting on behalf of a principal. There is an agency cost that exists in every business that has owners or shareholders and managers who are not necessarily owners. Agency cost means that shareholders and business managers may not necessarily agree on the actions that are best for the business firm and that there is an inherent cost to that disagreement. That leads to what is called the agency problem. When a firm has leverage, a conflict of interest exists if investment decisions have dissimilar consequences for the value of equity and the value of debt. These conflicts happen when there is a high concern of financial distress and can only arise when there is a chan ce that the firm will default. For example, if the firm managersÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ actions are positive for the shareholders but negative for the firmÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s creditors which, in turn, lowers the overall total value of the firm. Shareholders wish for management to run the company in a way that increases shareholder value. On the other hand, management may wish to grow the company in ways that capitalize on their personal power and goals that may not be in the best welfare of shareholders. Agency costs of financial distress are different from agency benefits of leverage because even though equity holders may benefit at the expense of debt holdersÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ from these negative NPV actions taken in times of distress, debt holders recognize this move and pay less for the debt when it is first issued, reducing the amount the firm can dole out to shareholders. The net result is a reduction in the initial share price of the firm corresponding to the negative NPV of the a ctions. Ultimately, it is the shareholders of the firm who swallow these agency costs. Agency costs represent an additional cost of growing the firmÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s leverage that will affect the firmÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s optimal capital structure choice. The costs increase with the risk, i.e., the amount of debt held by the firm. Here are some agency costs of leverage: Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢Excessive risk taking and asset substitution Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢Debt overhang and under investment Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢Cashing out Debt maturity and covenants can help to mitigate the agency costs of debt. The degree of agency costs frequently depends on the maturity of debt. Agency costs are highest for long-term debt and smallest for short-term debt. Debt Covenants are conditions of writing a loan in which creditors place limitations on actions that a firm can take. Covenants may help to reduce agency costs; nonetheless, because covenants hinder management flexibility, they have the possibility to avert investment in positive NPV opportunities and can have costs of their own. 2.When securities are fairly priced, why would the original shareholders of a firm pay the present value of bankruptcy and financial distress costs? In the realm of finance, a security refers to any proof of ownership or debt that has been assigned a value and may be sold (The Street, 2014, 1). For the holder, a security represents an investment as an owner, creditor or rights to ownership on which the person hopes to gain profit, such as stocks, bonds or financial options (The Street, 2014, 1). When a company files for bankruptcy or faces a time of financial distress, every individual with a stake in that respective company Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å" from employees to creditors to stockholders, etc. Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å" is essentially linked to the future of that company in terms of how a bankruptcy proceeding may unravel. As such, individuals who hold securities in certain companies have varying change s of getting repaid. It is in this capacity that original shareholders of a firm may pay the present value of bankruptcy and financial distress costs in order to Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âcurbÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã the effects that an escalating financial issue may have on individual stakeholders as well as the overarching company. Research has found that a shareholder in a company or firm Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å" especially those who have signed on and been a part of that company since the beginning Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å" hold a priority position in relation to assets of the debtor corporationÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s estate and their ability or inability to realize on their interests and securities (Kelch, 1993, 264). Thus, when shareholders have been permitted to retain economic interests in debtor or financially unstable companies, those individuals maintain a respective say in what happens to that company, in other words, acting on good faith (Kelch, 1993, 264). 3.What are the dividend payment process an d the open-market repurchase process? In your answer, be sure to explain the effects they have in a perfect world. The dividend payment processes, or dividend payment procedures set a procedure that follows: declaration date; ex-dividend date; holder of record date; and payment date. Declaration date is the announcement that a companyÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s overseeing board of directors has approved the payment of a dividend. The ex-dividend date is the date is the date upon which investors are Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âcut offÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã from receiving a dividend. For example, if an investor purchases a stock on the ex-dividend date, that investor will not receive the dividend, as this date is two business days before the holder-of-record date (Investopedia, 2014, 1). The ex-dividend date is important as from the day it is issued and forward, new stockholders will not receive a dividend, and as a result, the stock price of a company will be reflective of this. The holder of record date is the date upon which the stockholders who are able to receive the dividend are recognized. Finally, the payment date is the date upon which an actual dividend is paid out to the stockholders on record. The open-market repurchase process, on the other hand, is the reacquisition by a company of its own stock. Open market repurchases are legal transactions to reacquire a company which are generally encouraged by regulators to avoid instances of insider trading or liability. In terms of a repurchase, the open market method is largely considered to be the most common share method in the United States. In cases where this is an option, a firm or company will announce that it will repurchase some shares in the open market from time to time as market conditions dictate. In this capacity, a company or firm holds the upper hand in terms of repurchasing, as it will decide when, where, and how much of a company to repurchase, and this tactic can take upwards of months and years to be complet ed. 4.What are the benefits and drawbacks of accumulating cash balances rather than paying dividends and what effects do dividend policy have on this type of decision? Today, many companies are accumulating cash balances rather than paying dividends in the wake of an uncertain fiscal and economic future. As dividend policy is largely concerned with financial policies regarding paying cash dividends in the present or paying an increased dividend at a later stage, many companies remain uncertain about their respective statuses at this Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âlater stageÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã in the game and are choosing to opt out of dividend policy all together. As dividend policy as well as the time and extent of these dividend policies must be chosen by a companyÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s management team, various factors must be taken into account by these managerial higher-ups in order to impose dividend policy on the entirety of a company, often effecting stocks, shareholders, taxes, and the opt ion to gain or maintain securities. For many companies, the future is generally unstable and indeterminate, and as such, many companies are choosing a less-risky option, accumulating cash balances. CNBC notes that amid recent lackluster earning seasons, that featured many companies missing sales expectations, cash balances have swelled significantly, and corporations are now stowing away cash at record rates, reluctant to invest in their businesses or hire new workers as uncertainty continues to cloud the future (Cox, 2012, 1). This research, as well as an overarching uncertainty regarding the future of fiscal policy and economics in general in the United States and across much of the western world has found that many people are far less concerned about financial risks and are more concerned about the capacity for growth, both on an individual as well as a corporate level. In a post-recession environment, investors and businesses seem to be on a separate page, but both in underst anding as to why certain companies are holding onto cash. For instance, CNBC notes: Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âThereÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s this free-floating waiting period . . . waiting for certaintyÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã (Cox, 2012, 1). 5.What impact does asymmetric information have on the optimal level of leverage? In your answer, be sure to describe the implications of adverse selection and the lemons principle for equity issuance, as well as the empirical implications. Asymmetric information is found in a situation in which one party in a transaction has more or superior information as compared to the other party in that transaction. For instance, asymmetric information can occur when a seller knows more than a buyer or vice versa, and such an instance can become harmful due to the fact that one party has the opportunity to take advantage of the other. In this case, the party with the increased level of information essentially has all the leverage in a financial deal, because he or she can ta ke the excess information into account and force the hand of the other member of the transaction, in effect. In this capacity, there comes a chance of adverse selection, in which undesirable results can occur when buyers and sellers possess the aforementioned asymmetric information, and because individuals have access to different information, undesirable products or services are more likely to be selected in the respective transaction. Also into play comes the lemons principle, which says that in the presence of people in a market who are ready to offer bad or inferior goods, these inferior goods tend to wipe a market out of existence if it isnÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢t empirically possible to distinguish the good products from the bad. As such, if a seller is in a lemons situation, that seller has to send the right signals to the prospective buyers in order to distinguish oneself from others to gain a customerÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s confidence in the services and terms of an agreement tha t is being offered. In this manner, typically, good companies and products are able to distinguish themselves from the bad, empirically paying higher dividends, higher returns, and the like. 6.Compare and contrast mature profitable firms with stable cash flows with firms with higher risk (dependencies on economy) with unstable cash flows. What risks do they take in regards to leverage use, tax shields, and trading information between managers and investors? Mature profitable firms with stable cash flows are far more reliable in terms of fiscal and economic responsibility to shareholders than are higher risk firms with unstable cash flows. In certain situations, these high-risk firms, which are largely dependent upon the economy, have the ability to provide their shareholders with extreme levels of success and wealth, should the economy be in a state of influx and prosperity. In such cases, significant increases in cash flow allow shareholders to believe Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å" albe it irrationally Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å" that these firms are extremely successful and will reap these kinds of benefits for years to come, essentially making their shareholders rich. However, such prosperous situations are not the norm, and occur only in situations of economic prosperity, which sets shareholders up for instances of exceeding loss as well as success, which can leave these shareholders only breaking even or finding themselves at a loss. As such, the more reliable investment appears to be the more reliable and stable companies, which bring in reasonable and steady cash flows over time. Just as a shareholder takes on a risk in becoming involved with these high-velocity companies, so do managers and higher-ups within these firms. For instance, taxation, trade and everyday business may seem easy enough when a company or firm is experiencing high levels of cash flow and success, but when this success goes away; companies like this are prone to implode upon themselves. As suc h, these times of uncertainty significantly harm investors, managers, employers and all shareholders, who exist at the mercy of a volatile company. References Cox, J. (2012). Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âCompanies are sitting on more cash than ever before.Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã CNBC. Web. Retrieved from: https://www.cnbc.com/id/49519419 on 23 May 2014. Investopedia. (2014). Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âDividend payment procedures.Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã Investopedia. Web. Retrieved from: https://digitalcommons.law.umaryland.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=2863context=mlr on 23 May 2014. Kelch, T. (1993). Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âShareholder control rights in bankruptcy.Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã Maryland Law Review, Web. Retrieved from: https://digitalcommons.law.umaryland.edu/cgi/viewcontent .cgi?article=2863context=mlr on 23 May 2014. The Street. (2014). Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âSecurities Definition.Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã The Street. Web. Retrieved from: https://www.thestreet.com/topic/47042/securities.html on 23 May 2014. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Agency costs" essay for you Create order
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Introduction This essay describes a position for a Public Health Nutritionist Dietician working in Primary Health Care Outreach in West Arnhem Maningrida, Darwin and was advertised by the Northern Territory Government Department of Health position. The position of a Public Health Nutritionist Dietician working in rural or remote areas can be associated with many issues including working remotely and practising cultural safety. DieticianÃ¢â¬â¢s working in rural or remote locations are more likely to leave their jobs due to personal reasons, poor management and lack of dietetic staff, therefore increasing the workload of rural dieticians. Practising cultural safety has greater importance when working in rural areas due to the larger populationÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦These personal reasons included lifestyle, personal issues, proximity to family and friends and social isolation. This is a welfare state issue as these health professionals personal issues such as social isolation are mental h ealth issues which could lead to impact on these employees with depression for example (Vogel, 2013; Brown, Williams Capra, 2010; Brown, Mitchell, Williams, Macdonald-Wicks, Capra, 2011). Poor management from direct line managers was also frequently linked to causing distress to dieticians due a lack of professional support and development. The study explained the low quality of management may be due to many managers having no background in allied health, reporting they did not understand or respect the dieticiansÃ¢â¬â¢ needs. This issue relates to economic rationalism as the government system is not employing managers of rural dieticians to effectively support the rural health system (Brown, Williams, Capra, 2010; Brown, Mitchell, Williams, Macdonald-Wicks, Capra, 2011). Rural dieticianÃ¢â¬â¢s workload compared dieticians working in the metropolitan is generally larger due to a lack of staff backfill. The Better Health Commission recommends the ratio of dieticians to the p atient population to be 14:1000 000, however the ratio is 12.4:100 000 in rural Australia which places a greater load of work onto the dietician, a Workforce Issues as work related stress in dieticians should be prevented (Wilson
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Question: Discuss about the Goals of Smart Specialisation. Answer: Introduction: In order to improve or work on the skills, the SMART goal will be to actually focus on using the limited resources and producing better results. This can only be achieved by working more effectively and with critical analysis of the situations or challenges I face during decision making (Worden, 2014). Action plan: The action plan will be to follow the same guidelines as per the required policies and assist others as well in developing key skills to achieve their goals (Foray and Goenaga, 2013). Plan would also include the encouragement to work as a team instead of work on individual basis. My plan to grow and develop My personal plan for developing myself and growing in my own position include hard work and through bringing some innovation in my field. This is how I can improve and grow more productively in my professional career. Hosts Comments: Working as a manager in this company has helped me a lot to grow and learn. Also, they provide a competitive environment which keeps challenging you to achieve your goals. References Foray, D. and Goenaga, X., 2013. The goals of smart specialisation.Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union. Worden, J.M., 2014.An analysis of training focused on improving SMART goal setting for specific employee groups. EDGEWOOD COLLEGE.
Monday, April 13, 2020
Solution to Land Pollution Paper Land pollution Land pollution is mainly caused by poor solid waste management. There are three answers to these environmental problems. YOU can Reduce, Reuse and Recycle. ; Reduction ; Reuse ; Recycle Reduction We can reduce the amount of waste that is produced by doing simple things like two-sided copying on paper and backyard composting. This will decrease the amount of waste that will be disposed of in landfills. The Government can raise awareness of the importance of reduction through campaigns and advertisements and encourage the public to participate actively in reduction strategies like waste exchange program. Reduction methods can have positive environmental impacts like conserving resources. [ Return TO TOP Another way to reduce the amount of waste produced is by reusing a product. We are reusing when we keep something and use them again for either the same or other purposes. When we go shopping at supermarkets, we can bring our own shopping bag to carry our groceries and cut down on he use of plastic bags. We can also bring our own lunchboxes to store our meals instead of disposing plastic containers after we use it. These are some simple ways that we can do to contribute. [ Return To Top ] Recycle Ever wondered where the can of coke, the bottle of lemon tea, or your homework goes to after being thrown into the bin? Well, in the process of recycling, waste materials are processed industrially and then reformed into new or similar products. We will write a custom essay sample on Solution to Land Pollution specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Solution to Land Pollution specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Solution to Land Pollution specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer This helps us to renew our limited resources, and at the same time conserve the environment! Some of the waste materials that can be recycled are used paper, newspapers, plastic and glass bottles and aluminum cans. We should throw these waste materials into the appropriate recycling bins whenever we can, instead of throwing it into the rubbish bin.
Wednesday, March 11, 2020
William Goldings Running Theme Free Online Research Papers Goldings Themes Outline Thesis: A running theme in William Goldings works is that man is savage at heart, always ultimately reverting back to an evil and primitive nature. I. The fall of man A. Lord of the Flies B. The Inheritors C. Free Fall D. Pincher Martin II. Golding as a theologian A. Lord of the Flies B. The Inheritors C. Pincher Martin III. Mans fear A. Lord of the Flies B. The Inheritors C. Pincher Martin IV. The island ________________________________________ Goldings Themes A running theme in William Goldings works is that man is savage at heart, always ultimately reverting back to an evil and primitive nature. The cycle of mans rise to power, or righteousness, and his inevitable fall from grace is an important point that Golding proves again and again in many of his works, often comparing man with characters from the Bible to give a more vivid picture of his descent. Golding symbolizes this fall in different manners, ranging from the illustration of the mentality of actual primitive man to the reflections of a corrupt seaman in purgatory. William Goldings first book, Lord of the Flies, is the story of a group of boys of different backgrounds who are marooned on an unknown island when their plane crashes. As the boys try to organize and formulate a plan to get rescued, they begin to separate and as a result of the dissension a band of savage tribal hunters is formed. Eventually the stranded boys in Lord of the Flies almost entirely shake off civilized behavior: (Riley 1: 119). When the confusion finally leads to a manhunt [for Ralph], the reader realizes that despite the strong sense of British character and civility that has been instilled in the youth throughout their lives, the boys have backpedaled and shown the underlying savage side existent in all humans. Golding senses that institutions and order imposed from without are temporary, but mans irrationality and urge for destruction are enduring (Riley 1: 119). The novel shows the reader how easy it is to revert back to the evil nature inherent in man. If a group of well-conditioned school boys can ultimately wind up committing various extreme travesties, one can imagine what adults, leaders of society, are capable of doing under the pressures of trying to maintain world relations. Lord of the Fliess apprehension of evil is such that it touches the nerve of contemporary horror as no english novel of its time has done; it takes us, through symbolism, into a world of active, proliferating evil which is seen, one feels, as the natural condition of man and which is bound to remind the reader of the vilest manifestations of Nazi regression (Riley 1: 120). Goldings primary goal in writing Lord of the Flies is to create a readable story that people can relate to that conveys the message that man always reverts back to his savage nature. When he wrote the novel, he was striving to move behind the conventional matter of the contemporary novel to a view of what man, or pre-man, is like when the facade of civilized behavior falls away (Riley 1: 119). The Inheritors is Goldings second book. The death of the leader of a small group of simple-minded Neanderthals reduces their number to seven and the people find themselves tossed into a world with few pictures. The people think in terms of pictures; they have not yet learned to think rational thoughts. Golding labeled the characters with such names as Fa, Lok, and Ha to emphasize the simplicity of the society. When a new tribe of more advanced people discover the Neanderthals, they see them as devils and try to kill them. However, the Neanderthals are too naive to realize the motives of the new people, and they are only confused when their members begin to disappear. In the end, all of the Neanderthals are dead except for one, and the new people are the inheritors of the earth. It is ironic that the more advanced people are considered to be ore advanced. The innocents are peaceful and the new people are aggressive; they have regressed to a more savage state than even the savages. The new people are our ancestors because their behavior matches that of the school boys in Lord of the Flies (Baker 19). The boys in Lord of the Flies hunted each other because they were separated by the conflict caused by different views on the existence of a monster; the new people in The Inheritors hunted the Neanderthals because they were monsters, or devils. Golding implies that the long course of evolution has brought no fundamental change in human nature. We are today essentially what we were in the past (Baker 19). In the Inheritors, man evolved backwards a step in terms of his savagery. Golding is making the statement that with each cycle of human evolution, the evil nature of man becomes more and more apparent. though we have inherited the earth, we remain hunters and rit ualists, using our weapons and incantations with the same seriousness and blind conceit that possessed the first of our kind (Baker 19). Both Lord of the flies and The Inheritors pit two tribes against one another to demonstrate that man is not a rational creature in control of his own destiny (Baker 19). At the conclusion of The Inheritors, one of the tribal leaders of the new men is rationalizing the murder of the innocents just as the boys in Lord of the Flies rationalize their manhunt as just a game (Baker 24). This is another example of Goldings integration of the darkness of mans heart into his novels. None of the characters take responsibility for their wrongdoings. The last scene in The Inheritors is of the inheritors sailing away on a huge lake. A vast isolated lake on which a few lost souls are sailing aimlessly provides a vivid image of the lonely, directionless state of man. This is the symbol Golding chose to use to illustrate the hopelessness and emptiness of mans hear t. The one Neanderthal that remained living after the ordeal in The Inheritors was a newborn child. One of the women in the new tribe adopted the child as her own because she had lost a child on their journey. This action is demonstrative of the hypocrisy of which the inheritors are guilty. They killed the simple savages because they were monsters, and yet they toss this devil into their society to make up for the loss of a single life. This is another example of the human selfishness which Golding so loathed and strove to point out in his works. Goldings third novel, Free Fall, deals with the fall of man in terms of patterns. The novel is about Sammy Mountjoy, an artist who flounders with the origins of his loneliness and unhappiness. Sammy is somewhat of a contemptible man; he badly exploits his lover and toys with the minds of the people around him. He lived a peaceful childhood, but like Golding, felt isolated at times. Mountjoy looks back on his adolescent years and tries to make the connection between his serene youth and his stormy adulthood. There is no connection between the uncommitted boy and the self-concious fallen man (Baker 60). Golding believes that life is natural and patternless and that it remains so until men intervene and press their patterns upon it. Mans mistake is that he fails to realize this patternlessness and invariably goes arrogantly about his life without any idea of his transgression. golding said in an interview by Owen Webster that learning to live fearlessly with the natural chaos of existen ce, without forcing artificial patterns on it is the basic problem of man (Baker 56). The very title of the novel Free Fall even suggests the fall of man. Pincher Martin is Goldings first actual exploration of the after-life of a fallen man. In the novel, Lieutenant Christopher Hadley Martin, of the Royal Navy, is on the verge of killing a fellow officer while in the North Atlantic on convoy duty during World War II when a torpedo fired by the opposition strikes his ship. Martin is thrown overboard and is apparently marooned on a rock jutting out of the ocean. He remains there for seven days reflecting on his life and is finally washed off of the rock in a storm. It is at this point that he seems to die. At the end of the novel, it becomes evident to the reader that Martin has not actually been marooned on the rock for seven days, but that that was actually a hallucination of his soul. There are two basic theories as to what actually happened. In the first, Martin experiences a flashback and his life flashes before his eyes. The second theory is that his soul is in purgatory before he realizes that he is no longer alive. In any event, his body ceased to live instantly after he was thrown from the ship. Christopher Martin was, indeed, a pincher, and Golding nicknamed the man accordingly. Martin pilfered things from other people and while he was in purgatory (that is the more popular theory among critics), he was relieved of these items, at least in spirit. He was a corrupt man and this is multiplied by the fact that just before he was killed, he was plotting and attempting to carry out the murder of one of his peers. Had Golding chosen to dash a clergyman with an immaculate soul to death on the rocks, the illustration of mans malevolent roots would not have been nearly as vivid. The priest would perhaps have seen the times in his life that he had thought ill things towards others, among other trifling sins, but the image is not quite as clear as the one of a man who cheats people, is covetous, and is an overall unrepentant sinner. Golding created a character with whom many readers can identify, although on a ower level, and this is how he makes the point in Pincher Martin that man i s ultimately evil. Frank Kermode stated in an interview with Golding that the struggle on the rock is of mythical proportion in that Martin, an arch-sinner, represents fallen man' (Baker 37). In reply, Golding said that Martin is very much fallen Hes fallen more than most. In fact, I went out of my way to damn Pincher as much as I could by making him the nastiest type I could think of, and I was very interested to see how critics all over the place said, Well yes, we are like that' (Baker 37). Pincher Martin brought his suffering and damnation upon himself because he refused to admit that there was a power above him. Christopher Martins soul tries to survive on its own terms, and it pays for this conceit by perpetuating the misery it knew in life (Baker 45). This arrogance is another of the personality flaws in humans that inhibits their true rise to righteousness. Mankind tends to think we are at the top of the food chain and we are the most evolved species, therefore we have to answer to no one, and Golding proves this attitude wrong by making Christopher Martin answer to himself. In his first three books, Lord of the Flies, Pincher Martin, and Free Fall, Golding employed traditional form and contributed to the impression that he was a deeply traditional thinker (Baker xvi). Many critics thought of Golding as an old-fashioned Christian moralist while others felt that he was an existentialist (Baker xvii). Goldings reputation as a staunch Christian* is supported by his inclusion of Christian symbols and motifs in his works. In Lord of the Flies, Simon is a peaceful lad who tries to show the boys that there is no monster on the island except the fears that the boys have. Simon tries to state the truth: there is a beast, but its only us' (Baker 11). When he makes this revelation, he is ridiculed. This is an uncanny parallel to the misunderstanding that Christ had to deal with throughout his life. Later in the story, the savage hunters are chasing a pig. Once they kill the game, they erect its head on a stick and Simon experiences an epiphany in which he sees the perennial fall which is the central reality of our history: the defeat of reason and the release of madness in souls wounded by fear (Baker 12). As Simon rushes to the campfire to tell the boys of his discovery, he is hit in the side with a spear, his prophecy rejected and the word he wished to spread ignored. Simon falls to the ground dead and is described as beautiful and pure. The description of his death, the manner in which he died, and the c ause for which he died are remarkably similar to the circumstances of Christs life and ultimate demise. The major inconsistency is that Christ died on the cross, while Simon was speared. However, a reader familiar with the Bible recalls that Christ was stabbed in the side with a a spear before his crucifixion. In The Inheritors, the child that remains living after the rest of the Neanderthals are dead is hesitantly adopted into the Homo Sapien society despite the fact that it is an outcast. It is different, pure, and is not readily accepted by the new people. This rejection of something different symbolizes the rejection that Christ faced daily. The fact that the child was brought into the society despite its differences is representative of the attitudes of people who did accept Christ. The murders of the primitive men in The Inheritors symbolizes the end of an era. The time of innocence has ended at the hands of a devious, evil people. The Homo Sapiens assumed that the Neanderthals were evil without first carefully observing them to discover what their true nature was. The first fearful reaction of the new people was to kill the outcasts because they were different. Jesus Christ walked the Earth as a different type of man. His holiness was a threat to the scribes and Pharisees and so they had him killed without first carefully observing what his true nature was. Golding, a historian, was aware of this when he wrote The Inheritors and he included the parallel not only to indicate to readers mans general lack of ability to accept others, but to trace this shortcoming back to mans roots. In Pincher Martin, Martin was stranded on the island (or in purgatory) for a period of seven days. Over this time, he considered the elements of which he was composed. The duration of seven days as well as the reflection of Martins evil origins parallel the Biblical portrayal of the creation of man. Golding parallels stories from the Bible, particularly the persecution and crucifixion of Christ, to compare humans to a more Godly man. The comparison and the ultimate dethroning of the Christ-figure, or the failure by man, in the Biblical situation shows the vile state of the human race as perceived by Golding. Many of William Goldings works discuss, in some context, mans capacity for fear and cowardice. In Lord of the Flies, the boys on the island first encounter a natural fear of being stranded on an uncharted island without the counsel of adults. Once the boys begin to organize and begin to feel more adult-like themselves, the fear of monsters takes over. It is understandable that boys ranging in ages from toddlers to young teenagers would have fears of monsters, especially when it is taken into consideration that the children are stranded on the island. Golding wishes to show, however, that fear is an emotion that is instinctive and active in humans from the very beginnings of their lives. This revelation uncovers another weakness in man, supporting Goldings belief that man is pathetic and savage at the very core of his existence. Throughout the novel, there is a struggle for power between two groups. This struggle illustrates mans fear of losing control, which is another example of his selfishness and weakness. The fear of monsters is natural; the fear of losing power is inherited. Golding uses these vices to prove the point that any type of uncontrolled fear contributes to mans instability and will ultimately lead to his [mans] demise spiritually and perhaps even physically. The primary fear that Golding discusses in The Inheritors is the fear of monsters. The new people viewed the Neanderthals as devils and killed them accordingly. The inheritors reaction to their terror was not thought out; the message that Golding wishes to convey is that fear often leads man to hasty and often unwise decisions. Humans cannot control their fear, and this supports Goldings idea that man is not in control of his own destiny, as he would like to believe. Christopher Martin, in Pincher Martin, was afraid of a higher power. There were no monsters for him to fear and losing his power is not a concern he holds; he is secure in his position as a lieutenant in the Navy. He does, however, refuse to admit that a controlling power greater than himself exists. A refusal to admit something is often indicative of fear. For example, alcoholics frequently deny their drinking problems because they are afraid of the consequences. The same is true of Pincher Martin and his theory that he is in control of his life. A defamation such as the one Martin would face if he admitted that he was not almighty would be degrading to him, and the inferiority complex that could result is not a pleasant thought to him. Golding wishes to expose the evils of arrogance and self-centeredness. If one feels that he has no higher power to answer to, his principles will sink lower and lower. Martin cheated people throughout his life and eventually wound up plotting to kill a man. Golding incorporates into his his work many islands. The island is an important symbol in all of Goldings works. It suggests the isolation of man in a frightening and mysterious cosmos, and the futility of his attempt to create an ordered preserve for himself in an otherwise patternless world (Baker 26). The island in Lord of the Flies is the actual island; it is not simply an island, though. It is a microcosm of life itself, the adult world, and the human struggle with his own loneliness. In The Inheritors, the island is more metaphorical. The fact that the original tribe of people are the last of the Neanderthals isolates them. The primitives are unable to link their metaphorical island with its respective mainland because they lack the common physical and mental characteristics that the new people possess. Christopher Martins soul (and apparently for a little while, at least, his body) is abandoned on the protruding rock in the ocean. This separates him from the physical adn spiri tual worlds so that his sparates him from the physical adn spiritual worlds so that his soul can process his situation and torment itself in privacy. Left alone on the island of the self, man discovers the reality of his own dark heart, and what he discovers is too abominable for him to endure. At the highest pitch of terror he makes the only gesture he can make a raw, instinctive appeal for help, for rescue (Baker 67). William Goldings popular theme that man is, and always has been, essentially evil by nature is apparent in many of his works. Man grows more savage at heart as he evolves because of his cowardice and his quest for power. Golding proves this by throwing together opposing forces (whether the forces be two tribes of conflicting boys or the inner conflict of a condemned man) into a situation that dowses them with power struggles and frightening situations. By comparing mankind in general to Biblical characters in similar scenarios, Golding provides images of the darker side of man. This darker side of mans nature inevitably wins and man is proven to be a pathetic race that refuses to accept responsibility for its shortcomings. ________________________________________ * It has been brought to my attention that Golding was apparently not Christian, but was Jewish. I havent looked further into this yet, but I recommend that you do so, so that you do not write a false statement in a paper, as I apparently did. _____________________________________ Baker, James R. William Golding, A Critical Study. New York: St. Martins Press, 1965. Golding, William. Free Fall. London: Faber and Faber, 1959. Golding, William. Lord of the Flies. New York: Harcourt, 1962. Golding, William. The Inheritors. New York: Harcourt, 1962. Riley, Carolyn, ed. Vol. 1 of Contemporary Literary Criticism. Detroit: Gale Research Company, 1973. ________________________________________ Upon looking back at this paper a year after writing it, Im almost ashamed to have put out a work so shabby and incomplete, but Im publishing it nonetheless, with the hopes that it will benefit someone. Feel free to use anything you deem applicable to your endeavors, but please dont steal my work. Research Papers on William Golding's Running ThemeThe Hockey GameWhere Wild and West MeetThe Spring and AutumnComparison: Letter from Birmingham and CritoEffects of Television Violence on ChildrenHonest Iagos Truth through DeceptionQuebec and Canada19 Century Society: A Deeply Divided EraHip-Hop is ArtAppeasement Policy Towards the Outbreak of World War 2
Monday, February 24, 2020
Emerging issues in environmental disaster management - Essay Example The way the US Coast Guard was able to function in such times of emergency speaks for itself about the efficient organization and working system of the agency, and the impact it has had and will continue to have on the lives ofmillions of Americans.Disaster management is a system of relief operations carried out in lieu of any natural or human-afflicted disasters in the country. These operations can be carried out either before or after a disaster strikes. When they are carried before the calamity, they are in the nature of preparing the people for it, and often involve evacuating the pertinent area. In the case of post-disaster operations, they are mostly concerned with the relief and rehabilitation of the stricken area and people, and often involve medical and housing facilities, and the sheltering of the evacuees. Many agencies and organizations, both governmental and non- governmental, have to work in a highly coordinated manner to bring about these measures. There is a high leve l of internal and external organization in and among these organizations respectively to achieve a high degree of efficiency that is a prerequisite for emergency control and management. These organizations can be at city, state or federal level, depending upon the nature and the need of the agency, and also upon the scope and limits of its operations. This paper focuses on the United States Coast Guard and its workings. The United States Coast Guard had its inception on January 28, 1915. ... coasts and inland maritime region. Although originally operating under the Department of Homeland Security, the Coast Guard, under special circumstances, can also serve the Department of Defense and the Department of the Navy. It embodies the motto Semper Paratus, which means "Always Ready". History: the history of the United States Coast Guard can be divided into two broad factions; the early history, that is before the formal inception of the modern Coast Guard authority, and that of post-modern Coast Guard inception. The early history can be traced back to the 1970s. On the 4rth of August, 1970, the Tariff Act by the Congress authorized the construction of ten vessels, or cutters, with the recruitment of 100 revenue officers, to maintain US maritime laws in the waterways, coordinate the marine taxes and prevent smuggling. This service was known as the Revenue Cutter Service or the Revenue Marine. In 1915, when the Cutter Service was combined with the Life-Saving Service, the organization received the present name of the United States Coast Guard. At that point, it was the single service dealing with both the enforcement of law and the service of personal protection and life saving in the waterways. In 1939, President Franklin Roosevelt transferred the Lighthouse Service to the Coast Guard, so that now the Coast Guard had to carry out maritime navigation and the operation of the country's lighthouses along with its other jobs. But that